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ŚLĄSKIE STUDIA HISTORYCZNO-TEOLOGICZNE



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szukane wyrażenie: Słomka, J. | znaleziono 11 opisów(-y) | strona: 1 spośród: 2


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autor: Słomka, J.

tytuł: Teologiczne podstawy egzegezy Orygenesa i jej aktualność

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 36,2 (2003) 477-489

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THE THEOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF ORIGEN'S EXEGESIS AND ITS CONTEMPORARY MEANING
Origen's exegesis is based on serious assumptions, both philosophical and theological. The philosophical foundation of his exegesis, as it is widely known, derives from the Platonic concept of the world. The article concentrates on a number of theological aspects. Origen obviously recognizes the Holy Scriptures as the Word of God. With this as a starting point, Origen compares the fact of writing down the Word of God as the Scriptures to the Incarnation and creation. Just as Logos assumes a human form, and thus humanity with all its consequences, the written Word is, in some way, "incarnated" in human speech and writing. Consequently, Origen perceives the structure of the Scriptures as analogous to that of man: the Scriptures have their body, soul and Spirit. The comparison between the Holy Scriptures and the fact of creation has the following implications: the whole world is the work of God, though in its numerous aspects it does not seem worthy of the good and almighty God. In the same way, the Scriptures are the work of God, though their numerous texts seem unworthy of God's perfection. The analogy between the Scriptures and the Incarnation and creation makes it possible for Origen to perform a thorough study of biblical texts and develop all the necessary exegetic techniques, as the subject of his study is not Logos Himself, but His work: human words and writings. It is only through such a study that one gradually grasps the mystery of the Word, Logos. It seems that those intuitions of Origen are also meaningful today: they are in line with the modern practice of biblical studies, making use of all the available scientific tools to analyze the texts of the Scriptures.



autor: Słomka, J.

tytuł: Ciało i Krew Jezusa jako pokarm. J 6,48-58 w interpretacji Klemensa Aleksandryjskiego

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 37,2 (2004) 131-138

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BODY AND BLOOD OF JESUS AS NOURISHMENT. JOHN 6,48-58 IN INTERPRETATION OF CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA
The words of Jesus about his Body and Blood given to us as nourishment are interpreted by Clement as a promise that the Logos will provide our souls with all necessary food. Such interpretation is open to the Eucharist, it must be noted, however, that the word "Eucharist" does not occur in the quoted texts. Clement remains at the level of allusion. His thought seems to suggest that Jesus' words should be interpreted as predicting complete cognition and direct perception, an ultimate purpose for each gnostic. It should also be mentioned that interpretations open to the Eucharist appear only in Paedagogus, in the context of the on-going debate within the Church of Alexandria, concerning, among others, the criteria of participation in the Eucharist. In Stromata, Clement gives an entirely spiritual meaning to the words of Jesus: they predict full contemplation of the Logos, which here on Earth is available only to a few, but will be perfectly fulfilled in the world to come.



autor: Słomka, J.

tytuł: Oczyszczenie z grzechu w homiliach Orygenesa o Księdze Kapłańskiej

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 38,2 (2005) 337-353

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CLEANSING FROM SIN IN ORIGEN'S HOMILIES ON LEVITICUS
Any cleansing from sin has its source in the sacrifice of Jesus - the Only Priest. The sacrifice is of double nature: carnal and spiritual, offered for people in Jerusalem and, at the same time, for heavenly beings in Heaven. The priestly work of Jesus gives validity to the offerings of the Old Testament, is the source of the power to cleanse form sin conferred on the Church, and it will only come to fulfilment with the cleansing of the worst sinner. Thus, the offerings of the Old Testament had the power to cleanse from sin. That power came to an end upon the death of Jesus. For a Christian, baptism is the fundamental, or even the only way to be cleansed. However, one also has a possibility to be cleansed after being baptised, as here, on earth, it is impossible to avoid sin. Origen recognises the cleansing power of all the acts of fulfilling the Gospel, particularly deeds of charity. He also mentions the confession of sins (regardless of canonical penance). Many times he points to the cleansing which can be granted to us as a result of listening to the Word of God. The cleansing can be gradual or instant. Origen discusses canonical penance separately, as something exceptional and difficult that is performed only once. That kind of penance is required in the cases of murder or denying one's faith. However, Origen emphasises the superiority of spiritual penance over the canonical practice. Those who die in sin face eternal fire and punishment which will be very painful and will complete their cleansing. The homiletic teaching of Origen on sin and cleansing does not aim at full consistency, it's style is, thus, vastly different from that of the Latin Fathers, who were his contemporaries.



autor: Słomka, J.

tytuł: Sin in Origen's Homilies on Leviticus

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 38,S (2005) 58-69

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GRZECH W ORYGENESA HOMILIACH DO KSIĘGI KAPŁAŃSKIEJ
W homiliach Orygenes koncentruje się na dwóch elementach człowieka, które określa zwykle jako rozum i dusza. Są one tożsame opisywanymi przez niego w innych dziełach dwiema częściami duszy: wyższą - rozumną i niższą. Zarówno rozum, jak i dusza mogą grzeszyć. Orygenes nie mówi w zasadzie o grzechach ciała. Grzechy rozumu są cięższe, bo powodują grzech całego człowieka, uniemożliwiają duszy spełnianie dobrych czynów. Polegają one na zbłądzeniu, odejściu od Boga, herezji, bezbożności. Dusza także może samodzielnie popełniać grzechy. Jej grzechy mogą być mimowolne, polegają na uleganiu pokusom złych pragnień i namiętności. Często grzechy duszy są przedstawiane jako choroby. Orygenes dokonuje kilku podziałów grzechów na dwie kategorie: cięższe i lżejsze. Najważniejszy z tych podziałów to grzechy odpuszczalne w tym życiu i nieodpuszczalne w tym życiu. Oprócz tego są wyróżnione grzechy przeciw Bogu i przeciw ludziom oraz grzechy, które wymagają pokuty kanonicznej i inne. Te podziały nie są konsekwentne i poszczególne kategorie grzechów mieszają się. Najpoważniejszym skutkiem grzechu jest zerwanie wspólnoty z Bogiem, a w efekcie i ze wspólnotą świętych. Kolejnym zaś jest karłowacenie człowieka i choroba duszy. Nie są one przedstawiane jako kara Boża. Natomiast oczyszczenie po śmierci jest już karą ognia wiecznego. Orygenes bardzo mało uwagi poświęca grzechowi w preezgzystencji.



autor: Słomka, J.

tytuł: Chrzest jako pieczęć

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 39,2 (2006) 255-271

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Baptism as a seal
Judeo-Christian writings introduce the concept of a "seal" as one of the basic terms defining Baptism. It is related to the Jewish apocalyptics and the Apocalypse. In that context, the "seal" is identified with the Name of Jesus. As the Judeo-Christian tradition gradually vanishes, the identification of the seal with the name of Jesus also disappears. Instead, there is a return to the theology of St Paul, who wrote about being sealed by the Holy Spirit. The image of Baptism as the seal of the Holy Trinity also begins to appear. In the Latin literature of the 3rd century, the concept gradually assumes the form of a separate rite - being anointed by a bishop - thus, it is more and more strongly associated with the granting of the Holy Spirit. In the 4th century, the term "seal" is no longer used in relation to Baptism. It continues to define Baptism in the East, but in the 4th century, apart from Cyril of Jerusalem, very few people use it. It is carefully avoided by the Fathers following the Alexandrian tradition, John Chrysostom of Antiochia does not seem to like it, either.



autor: Słomka, J.

tytuł: Ireneusz i przebóstwienie człowieka

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 42,1 (2009) 97-104

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słowa kluczowe: historia teologiipatrologiaIreneusz z Lyonuprzebóstwienieantropologia

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IRENAEUS AND THE DEIFICATION OF MAN
Summary
Works by B. Altaner, P. Evdokimov, W. Beinert, Cz. Bartnik and many others refer to Irenaeus’ teaching on salvation as the deification of man. However, as Irenaeus himself never used the word “deification", a question arises whether the statement is legitimate. On the one hand, Irenaeus is, indeed, the first theologian who took up a comprehensive reflection on the interrelation between incarnation and salvation, and he perceived salvation as a transformation of the whole human nature, not only as the gift of liberation from sin and resurrection granted to man. Yet, the very concept of deification (theopoiesis, theosis) was developed by the Alexandrian theological circles, while Irenaeus belonged to the Asian tradition, whose philosophical and theological assumptions were essentially different. Irenaeus peceived man as primarily the flesh: human nature is carnal, and only as such it is endowed with mind and spirit. The Alexandrians regarded human nature as spiritual. Thus, to Irenaeus, salvation is mainly salus carnis, while the Alexandrians saw salvation as salus animae. When Irenaeus wrote about man who was to become a son of God, he meant the community between man and God, and not a promise of unification of their natures. The idea of theosis, on the other hand, assumes that human nature (which is spiritual) is transformed to become like God’s, coming ever closer and finally uniting with it.
That is why publications on the history of theology, and especially soteriology, should not ascribe the idea of deification to Irenaeus. Presenting Irenaeus’ teaching in that way creates confusion rather than explains his thoughts.



autor: Słomka, J.

tytuł: Eklezjalno-teologiczne podstawy praktyki pokutnej wprowadzonej przez Cypriana w Kartaginie

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 42,2 (2009) 24-37

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słowa kluczowe: patrologiaCyprianpokutasakrament pojednania

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Ecclesiastical and Theological Grounds for the Penitential Practice Introduced by Cyprian in Carthage. Summary
The mid-third century persecutions of Christians spread over the entire Roman Empire. Thank to Cyprian’s correspondence, we are familiar with their course and the developments in the African church after their termination. After the persecutions ceased, Cyprian commenced the process of reconciliation in the Church, establishing the rules for the reinstatement of the lapsed. He argued against the practice of recommendation letters issued by the Confessors on the one hand, and against the rigorists who denied the fallen any possibility of returning to the Church on the other. The Confessors pointed to their unique relationship with the crucified Christ resulting from the tortures they had withstood. The rigorists claimed that only baptism cleansed heavy sins, including the denunciation of Christ, therefore, it is impossible for the Church to forgive those sins again after baptism. Cyprian adopted the following principle: ecclesiastical communion may be offered, but it has to be preceded by penance, and it is only the bishop or priests acting on his behalf that have the right to grant it. He justified the possibility of restoring the lapsed by claiming that the Church was a community of repenting sinners. Granting the ecclesiastical communion is without prejudice to the Lord’s decision at the Last Judgment, but it gives hope and support to the sinner, so that he may persevere in his penance. Cyprian’s objection against Confessors granting ecclesiastical communion – the practice that was well established in the Church and considered as lawful – resulted directly from his understanding of the Church as a community gathered around the bishop. As the successors of the Apostles, bishops are depositaries of the gifts and executors of the commands which Christ has left to His Church. Reinstating the lapsed, they act on behalf of the Church, without invoking their personal merits, as the Confessors did.



autor: Słomka, J.

tytuł: Marcelego z Ancyry interpretacja Prz 8,22-30

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 44,1 (2011) 38-44

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słowa kluczowe: teologia patrystycznaMarceli z AncyryIV wiekegzegeza patrystycznaarianizmKsięga Przysłów

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Interpretation of Prov 8:22-30 by Marcellus of Ancyra. Summary
Prov 8:22-30 is one of the key Bible texts for the Arian controversy. The words “made” and “begets”, used for describing the origin of Wisdom in the Septuagint, became a significant argument for the theory of the creation of the Logos in Arius’ doctrine. According to Arius, the text refers to the fact that Logos was begotten or, in other words, created before the creation of the world. In his polemic with Arius, Athanasius made a difference between the meanings of the two words: according to him, “begets” referred to the Logos being born of God before the ages, while the word “created” referred to the Incarnation. Marcellus, an anti-Arian polemist and Athanasius’ follower, took a different route.
He claimed that both words had an identical meaning, however, they did not refer to the pre-eternal birth – creation, but to the moment of the Incarnation, the creation of the body the Logos took on. Marcellus did not acknowledge the concept of birth from God, and that assumption led him to apply some elements of Origen’s allegorical exegesis in his own exegesis of the discussed text, though he considered Origen as a major heretic.



autor: Słomka, J.

tytuł: Metodologia teologii duchowości

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 50,1 (2017) 129-142

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słowa kluczowe: metodologia teologiiteologia duchowości

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Methodology of Spiritual Theology
Spiritual theology deals with the spiritual experience of individual persons. As a branch of theology, it builds on the assumption that every person is an image of God, and thus every human life contains a spiritual dimension. The sources of spiritual theology include any texts describing spiritual life, especially the works of the great Masters, but also the liturgy of the Church. The texts of the magisterium of the Church are also considered as a source, but, unlike in dogmatic or moral theology, their importance is limited. Spiritual theology aims to profoundly understand the inner structure of spiritual life in its various forms and demonstrate their mutual relations. The ultimate goal is to describe spiritual life in a way that helps to “discern the spirits”, to discriminate between the right and the erroneous paths of such life. The nature of the subject matter suggests that phenomenological method should be given priority in the research. Various methods of hermeneutics can also be helpful in the study of the texts.
Spiritual theology is closely related to dogmatic and moral theology, but the nature of their mutual relationships is complex. Spiritual theology should maintain a distance towards the modern human sciences: it must not assume their perspective of human being.



autor: Słomka, J.

tytuł: Metafora w teologii. Kilka uwag na marginesie traktatu J. Derridy Biała mitologia. Metafora w tekście filozoficznym

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 51,1 (2018) 76-88

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słowa kluczowe: Derrida, Jacquesmetaforajęzyk teologiimetoda teologiczna

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Metaphor in Theology. Some Remarks on the Margin of the Treatise of J. Derrida White Mythology: Metaphor in the Text of Philosophy
Derrida, in his essay, proves that philosophy, although it seeks to clarify and systematize thought, and so in philosophical texts the most precise abstract concepts are preferred, is not able, because of fundamental reasons, to escape completely from a metaphor. In his proof, Derrida analyses Aristotle's definition of metaphor and the resulting linguistic and intellectual consequences. He shows that metaphor cannot be treated as secondary to the concept. These considerations may be useful to a theologian. The attempts to systematize metaphors are useful for better understanding of the biblical metaphors and more careful selection of metaphors in the course of writing theological texts. Particularly interesting are the critical remarks about the mathematical concepts and technical works as a starting point for creating metaphors. Derrida's analysis showing a metaphor as "the mere emergence of language" is an important inspiration for reflection on the mutual relationship of an abstract concepts and metaphors in the theological text.



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