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1,4 (2011)

(table of contents)





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artykułów / items: 13

Bartoszek, A.

Towarzyszenie rodzinom osób z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną

Studia Teologiczne i Humanistyczne 1,4 (2011) s. 168-179
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SUMMARY: Accompanying Families of People with Intellectual Disabilities
This article shows the situation of persons with intellectual disabilities who have set up their own families. In the first part of the analysis, the legal possibilities of entering into a marriage by disabled persons are presented. It turns out that, although the civil and Church law impose some restrictions, it is nevertheless impossible for persons with intellectual disabilities to enter into a legal marriage. The second part deals with potential problems and difficulties that may be encountered by disabled persons and their children in the marital/ family life. These difficulties pose a challenge for both the disabled themselves and society, and therefore, the next part of the article suggests certain circles of people who can provide disabled persons with effective help. These people might include a close family member (or somebody from a church group or other families), social workers, coaches or family counselors. The last part outlines the four main areas in which the help for families with intellectual disabilities can be realized by the society and Church. The areas include: the economic area, the area of basic life skills, concerning especially food and safety, the hygienic-health area (with natural family planning included) and the religious-moral area.

Duda, M. , Kutek-Sładek, K.

Zaburzenia relacji wewnątrzrodzinnych w kontekście pojawienia się dziecka z niepełnosprawnością

Studia Teologiczne i Humanistyczne 1,4 (2011) s. 83-96
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SUMMARY: Disruption of Family Inner Relations in the Context of Having a Disabled Child
The article tells about inner family disorders, when disable child appears in a family: phases of an adaptation process to a disability, marriage relationship changes, changes of family life organisation, stereotypes about father of disabled child, types of parent’s attitude towards disable child and its healthy siblings.

Holeksa, J.

Wykluczenie osób z zespołem Downa w kontekście poradnictwa genetycznego i badań prenatalnych

Studia Teologiczne i Humanistyczne 1,4 (2011) s. 50-69
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SUMMARY: Exclusion of persons with Down syndrome in the context of genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis
Down syndrome is the most common mental disability and advanced age of mothers is the most important factor of its appearance. One can expect that along with the increasing age of mothers, frequency of Down syndrome also has grown up in recent decades. Facts contradict such relationship and bring to light the elimination of children with this disability. Numerous published data show that genetic testing for Down syndrome is not a basis for later parental decision, but it is a tool that makes possible the accomplishment of earlier decision to kill their “defective” foetus. Some factors are important that such reproductive decision is widespread in many societies. Cost-free performance of diagnosis and later termination of pregnancy accompanying with inadequate support for families that decided to give birth to their disabled children evidence unequal treatment of different reproductive decision by public policy. Most physicians responsible for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counselling accept termination of pregnancy in case of chromosome abnormalities. Moreover, many of them are advocates of eugenic ideas. The most important is the cultural situation that the pope John Paul II called the “Culture of Death”. It is argued that contemporary selection of disabled foetuses is a form of eugenics.

Janocha, W.

Religijne i pozareligijne sposoby wyjaśniania sytuacji kryzysowych w rodzinie

Studia Teologiczne i Humanistyczne 1,4 (2011) s. 113-123
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SUMMARY: Religious and non-religious ways to explain the family crisis situation
Crisis situations are attended each family and can be caused by childbirth, leaving home for adult children, severe illness, disability of a family member or death of a loved one. For many families, the birth of a disabled child are a very traumatic experience that provokes questions about the meaning and purpose of this event. The family can construed in many ways misfortune which happened to. Recourse to methods of interpretation depends on the adopted values hierarchy in the family. Distance to the religion provokes rational interpretation, deep intimacy with God will appoint a religious interpretation. This is not no matter what the direction of interpretation is chosen. The rationalization of the situation does not give answer to the question about the meaning and purpose of the disability. Only from the perspective of faith in God open to the transcendent man is able to understand the suffering and give it the meaning.

Juroszek, W.

Niepełnosprawność a wybrane aspekty kobiecości

Studia Teologiczne i Humanistyczne 1,4 (2011) s. 145-154
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SUMMARY: Disability and Some Aspects of Femininity
In this article it is analyzed how disabled women perceive three aspects of their woman identity: social relations, spouse choice and physical attractiveness. Results of three studies were taken into account (Giryński, Kumaniecka-Wiśniewska, Olszak-Krzyżanowska).
The results show that disabled women perceive relations with other disabled people as crucial. In addition to that, in the group of disabled people women perceive their social skills better than men. Intellectually disabled women put accent on potential spouse’s appearance. The results show that disabled women are perceived as asexual. Additionally, disabled women are characterized by inferior self-esteem with regard to physical appearance.

Kania, W.

Protokół z Groningen – nowe oblicze eugeniki

Studia Teologiczne i Humanistyczne 1,4 (2011) s. 70-82
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SUMMARY: The Groningen Protocol: the New Face of Eugenics
In 2005, the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine published an article dedicated to the euthanasia of severely ill newborn children. In this paper, two Dutch doctors, E. Verhagen and P. J. J. Sauer, presented the so-called Groningen Protocol which was introduced in 2002 at the University Hospital in Groningen. After proposing the classification of severely ill children into three different categories, the authors claim that, having in mind the best interest of patients in certain cases, a deliberate life-ending procedure should be performed. Among these “certain cases” are infants diagnosed with the most serious form of spina bifida, epidermolysis bullosa (a type of Hallopeau-Siemens) and extremely sick newborns who are expected to die after the intensive treatment was withdrawn but remained alive with severe suffering. In order to perform euthanasia, the following are necessary: a certain and independently confirmed diagnosis and prognosis about the presence of hopeless and unbearable suffering, predicted poor quality of life and parental agreement. Deliberate ending of life should be performed in accordance with state-of-the-art medical standards and reported to the local juridical authorities.
The aim of our article is to prove that the Dutch experience of the euthanizing of extremely ill newborns is a new form of eugenics. In the historical perspective, all attempts of classifying people with more or less quality of life bore bitter consequences including massive programs of euthanasia and leading even to the “final solution”. To act in the best interest of a suffering newborn should mean not only to eradicate pain but, most of all, to respect the principle ethical norm, i.e. the personal dignity of a human being.

Kozubek, M.T.

Przywrócić humanitas starości w rodzinie (perspektywa różnych kultur)

Studia Teologiczne i Humanistyczne 1,4 (2011) s. 180-188
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RIASSUNTO: Ripristinare l’humanitas all’ anzianità in famiglia (prospettiva di varie culture)
L’invecchiamento della società odierna non trova precedenti nella storia dell’umanità. È un evento globale e riguarda adesso, o in un prossimo futuro, specie nelle società occidentali, ogni popolo e ognuno personalmente. Perciò occorre intraprendere globalmente varie iniziative per preparare le generazioni future a saper confrontarsi con tale realtà.
Questo contributo mette in evidenza il ruolo della persona anziana in tre diverse culture: africana, asiatica e nordamericana. In tutte le culture si afferma che il vivere l’anzianità in famiglia rende le persone anziane tesori dell’umanità e l’età senile il vertice dal quale si vede nel modo migliore tutta la vita umana e quella della famiglia. A causa dei cambiamenti sociali, però dovuti alla globalizzazione, i modelli culturali tradizionali di trattamento della persona nell’età senile, vengono spesso cancellati e sostituiti con modelli cosiddetti ‘occidentali’. Di fronte a questo le società sono chiamate ad agire per ripristinare l’umanitas all’anzianità in famiglia.

Sosna, K.

Duszpasterskie wsparcie rodziny z dzieckiem z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną

Studia Teologiczne i Humanistyczne 1,4 (2011) s. 124-132
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SUMMARY: Pastoral support for a family with mental disability
Family with a mentally disabled child faces problems which are very difficult to solve for them alone. Therefore, these families need support provided by properly prepared professionals like psychologists or pedagogical specialists. They are supposed to help parents to solve their problems. This professional aid should help parents to accept this situation as well as facilitate upbringing of a mentally disabled child. However, this pedagogical and psychological therapy is not enough. Pastoral support is necessary in this situation. Priests help parents to undergo through this difficult experience which is birth of a mentally disabled child. It is because of the fact that thanks to the pastoral support parents can see religious aspect of this situation. Simultaneously, priest should be very well prepared for this kind of pastoral activity.

Surmiak, W.

Eugenika a testy genetyczne

Studia Teologiczne i Humanistyczne 1,4 (2011) s. 29-49
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RIASUNTO: Eugenica e testi genetici
Nel contesso delle technologie informatiche e della telemedicina, il problema della tutela della privacy dei pazienti e un problema etico fondamentale. A maggior ragione nel campo della genetica e degli screening che contengono dati che necessitano della massima riservatezza. I rapidi progressi compiuti nel campo della genetica umana con la medicina predittiva consentono di identificare i soggetti portatori di geni responsabili di gravi malatie o di geni in grado di sviluppare in futuro tali affezioni. I programmi di screening genetici vengono comunemente classificati in tre grupi, a seconda del momento in cui viene effetuato il test: il test genetico postnatale, il test genetico nella diagnostica prenatale e il test nella diagnostica genetica pre-impiantatoria.

Uciecha, A.

„Niepełnosprawni” w kulturze grecko-rzymskiej i w starożytnym Kościele

Studia Teologiczne i Humanistyczne 1,4 (2011) s. 15-28
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Résumé: Handicapés dans la culture gréco-romaine et dans l’Église Ancienne
Dans cette contribution on scrute d’abord l’utilisation des termes grecs maladie, infirmité, faiblesse, impuissance, en souglinant que la doctrines médicales dans l’antiquité n’a pas connu une expression handicap. Les analyses portent sur la distinction des motivations des soins aux malades dans la civilisation gréco-romaine et l’Église Ancienne. A partir d’exemples concrets et principes philosophiques, on examine différents aspects de l’attitude des paiennes et des chrétiennes devans les malades dans le contexte historique de l’influence réciproque de ces deux importants facteurs de notre civilisation.

Wiącek, G. , Otrębski, W. , Targońska, A.

Zespół wypalenia sił, jego korelaty i sposoby radzenia sobie z nim u rodziców dzieci z autyzmem

Studia Teologiczne i Humanistyczne 1,4 (2011) s. 97-112
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SUMMARY: Burn-Out Syndrome of Autistic Children’s Parents, Its Correlates and Ways of Dealing with It
Being a parent of an autistic child is very stressful. A development of the burnout syndrome can be stimulated in such a situation. Research questions were set about: describing of the burnout syndrome and its internal structure in parents of autistic children, correlations between this syndrome and severity of child’s symptoms, as well as coping strategies used by the parents.
Research project described consisted of two studies: the first in a group of 25 parents of children with autism; in the second study participated 6 parents of such children. There were two standardized measures utilized in the studies (The Burnout Syndrome Scale by W. Okla and S. Steuden and The Severity of Autistic Symptoms Scale by A. Szulman), as well as semistructured interviews with narrative approach aimed to describe parents’ coping strategies.
Average level of the burnout syndrome was indicated in gathered data. Internal structure and differences in this syndrome as well as correlations with the child’s symptoms severity was identified. Individual and common coping strategies of parents were described. Outcomes are discussed and conclusions drawn in the fields of theory, methodology and practice.

Wójtowicz, M.

Paternalizm a wychowanie, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem wychowania osób niepełnosprawnych

Studia Teologiczne i Humanistyczne 1,4 (2011) s. 133-144
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SUMMARY: Paternalism and Upbringing, Especially in Connection with Upbringing of the Disabled
The type of interpersonal relationship, defined as paternalism, can be found in many spheres of human life: in social relationships, in international relations, in business administration. The state legal system could be paternalistic as well when the legislator forces citizens to the behavior meant for their own good. The liberal thought is clearly against the state paternalism.
The paternalistic attitude in upbringing absolutely dominated in the past. At present child autonomy is emphasized; children should develop in freedom and toward freedom. Some of the contemporary currents in pedagogy even call for complete resignation from the paternalism, treating it as a form of enslavement and abuse.
The research of Irena Obuchowska and Harlan Lane proves that upbringing of the disabled is particularly paternalistic. It concerns equally actions of members of their family and the whole system of state aid. Thus, the appropriate balance between paternalism and autonomy of the disabled is absolutely needed.

Wolska, D.

Małżeństwo czy celibat osób z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną – odpowiedzialny wybór

Studia Teologiczne i Humanistyczne 1,4 (2011) s. 155-176
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SUMMARY: Marriage or celibacy of people with intellectual disabilities – responsible choice
This article is an attempt to seek answers to questions concerning preparation people with intellectual disabilities for adult life. The author emphasizes that when working with people with intellectual disabilities one should perceive them in the “course of their lives”. This means to teach them in their childhood that kind of behaviours which enable them to gain acceptance in their adulthood of environment in which they will live. This will allow them to get a good quality of life. “The process of education is to shape the person so that she is ready to act as a full member of a social group. Under that, sex education is part of this process and aims to transfer knowledge, shape the views, opinions and attitudes of young people. This is to raise awareness of the values recognized in a given society. However, an elementary goal is to shape its acceptance of their gender, the responsible acceptance of gender roles and the formation of expressing their sexuality.” (Marciniak M., 2005, p. 66) How to accomplish this task, to prepare a person with intellectual disabilities to make responsible choices and accept what life has to offer? In the name of the dignity of persons with intellectual disabilities one should prepare him/her for all phases of human life, to autonomy, to perform social roles in adulthood. We must also equip them with knowledge that is needed in adult life, to develop talents that will enable him/her to undertake professional activity and carry out in the family.

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