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Studia Pastoralne
Rocznik Wydziału Teologicznego UŚ

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szukane wyrażenie: Słomka, J. | znaleziono 3 opisów(-y) | strona: 1 spośród: 1

autor: Słomka, J.

tytuł: Męczennicy i przebaczenie grzechów

Studia Pastoralne 3 (2007) 94-106

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słowa kluczowe: montanizmherezjechrześcijaństwo starożytneprorocyTertulian

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In the 2nd and 3rd Centuries a practice developed in the churches of Asia Minor whereby the forgiveness of sins, or ecclesiastical peace, was granted by martyrs. The practice had its origin in the persecutions of Christians. As martyrs participated in the Passion of Christ, and were thus united to Him in a unique way, they were able to uphold those who renounced their faith in the midst of persecutions, welcoming them back to the Church. The peace granted by martyrs was approved by bishops. The practice was also familiar to Tertullian, who, being a Montanist, pointed out that it was generally the "people of the Spirit" who had the power to forgive sins, which included prophets as well as martyrs. Tertullian claimed that the power to forgive sins was not related to the Apostolic succession. The above-described practice was opposed by St. Cyprian of Carthage who, in 250 A.D., following the persecutions under Decius, put penitential practice in order, subordinating it to the power of the bishop.

autor: Słomka, J.

tytuł: Posługa biskupa jako officium

Studia Pastoralne 7 (2011) 409-417

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słowa kluczowe: Ambroży z MediolanuCyprian z KartaginyGrzegorz WielkiLeon Wielkipatrologiabiskupurząd biskupiofficium

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The word officium summarises a significant characteristic of Roman culture. It describes the Roman ideal of life as public service, i.e. a concern for salus rei publicae. Latin Christianity took over the word and its substance. The ministry of a bishop was described as exercising the officium already in the early ages. That is how Cyprian of Carthage understood the office of bishop, even though he did not use the word explicitly. Ambrose of Milan made the Roman officium a cornerstone of the formation of priests, which he described in his well-known work De officiis ministrorum. He himself exercised the office of the Bishop of Milan according to the best model of a Roman official. The tradition was further developed by Leo the Great, who pointed out that pax christiana was the fulfillment of what the Romans had expected of pax romana. Gregory the Great took over the legacy of his predecessors. However, to a greater extent than Ambrose or Leo, he perceived the tension between exercising the office accompanied by worldly cares and the spiritual dimension of bishop’s ministry. It may have been caused by the fact that, after a total disintegration of Roman administration, Gregory was forced to take on the responsibility of the perfect of Rome. His Regula pastoralis, however, provides a continuation of Ambrose’s ideas concerning the formation of clergy.

autor: Słomka, J.

tytuł: Krytyka żydów w najstarszych pismach chrześcijańskich tradycji antiocheńskiej i azjatyckiej

Studia Pastoralne 10 (2014) 396-404

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słowa kluczowe: DidacheIgnacy AntiocheńskiMeliton z Sardesżydzi

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The article deals with three Christian writings which originated in Antioch and Asia at the end of the 1st and the first half of the 2nd century, namely Didache, the Letters of Ignatius of Antioch and the Paschal Homily of Melito of Sardis. The first two include only short, marginal paragraphs criticising the Jews. The Paschal Homily, on the other hand, devotes a long, carefully composed passage to their criticism, or more precisely, accusation. It is placed in the text after the presentation of the history of sin, slavery and liberation offered to us by Christ through His death. The passage starts with an accusation against Israel for killing Jesus. The Jews killed Him because they had not recognised God, their Saviour. Then Melito revisits the history of Israel as described in the Old Testament, demonstrating that, from the very beginning, the Jews had been ungrateful and unable to recognise their God. As a result, they deserved their punishment. Though Melito does not mention it directly, it is highly probable that he regards the destruction of Jerusalem and the expulsion of the Jews in 135 AD as their punishment and the sign of their rejection by God. The entire Homily is based on the typological interpretation of the Scripture and demonstrates the author’s excellent knowledge of the Old Testament. The combination of such a violent accusation and such good knowledge of the Jewish tradition, in the context of what we know about the social relations in 2nd century Sardis, suggests that the church in Sardis was dominated by Christians who previously were proselytes.

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