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autor: Balwierz, M.

tytuł: Przyjmowanie orędzia wiary na przykładzie afrykańskich ludów Tanzanii

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 17 (1984) 109-132

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słowa kluczowe: misjologiamisjeewangelizacjaTanzania

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The indigenous connection between the religion and the life remains a stable element of all the changes, which occur in the modern Africa. Therefore, the religious values occupy permanently the same position in the African life in spite of its all modern transformations. This fact have to be taken into account during the process of looking for the new African models of the man, culture and civilization. In these circumstances, the African and some other people ask about the usefulness of the different religions for the creation of the new African style of life. Such a question regarding the Christianity was also put by some writers. An affirmative answer on it is grounded on two facts. The great internal capability of the Christianity for the cultural adaptation is one of them. The very existence of the incarnation of the Christianity into the real life of some modern African societies is the other one. The Catholicism and the life of the Tanzanian society are exemplary taken here as a ground for the fundamental reflexion regarding those two facts. The permanent missionary activity of the Christians and the world-wide range of this religion are some exceptional events in the general phenomenon of the religious life of man. Likewise these two exceptional events testify that this religion possesses an unusual capability as well of an accommodation as of an absorbtion during its contact with the different cultures and civilizations of the world. Both elements, namely the accommodation and the absorption, are the essential components of a new missionary method, which is called "an inculturation". The Ecclesiology, which is grounded on the History of Salvation, forms the proper meaning of the Catholic absorption. In this framework, the missionary absorbtion is only a part of the Church's evangelization. This part of the evangelization realizes a process of an introduction of Jesus Christ and His Gospel into the new culture. Such an introduction of the first, essential Christian value serves above all for the true development of the evangelized reality. The dialogical and ecclesiastical nature of the comprehensive Catholic faith shapes its proper accommodation in the evangelized culture. The evangelizing Church have to enter upon a dialogue with the non Christian cultures and religions in this process. This Church cannot try to force some doctrines, ideologies or outlooks on life upon those cultures, because the real Catholic Truth is the Word of God which became a human being, i.e. Jesus Christ living in His Church now. Therefore, the evangelizers who work for the proper accommodation of the Catholic faith in some new culture, have to make only Jesus Christ to be a present reality in it. This is their care for the proper accommodation of the faith, which is a process almost identical with the missionary absorption in this background. The missionary absorption and the missionary accommodation are only two different aspects of the one, evangelizing process. It is called "an inculturation" today. The most essential part of this inculturation is a meeting of Jesus Christ living in the Church with the evangelized culture. Some new culture is created during such a meeting. This process differs totally from an aculturation, because the new culture does not come into being here in a result of the contact of two or more cultures but in a result of the contrast of the evangelized culture with the person of Jesus Christ living in His Church. This person gives the whole newness to the inculturation, which belongs to the very nature of the present life of the missionary People of God. - Apart from the theological reflection, some facts from the life of the evangelizing Church testify in favour of the presented truth. The reception of the evangelical message of the faith by the real society exposed to the missionary evangelization of the Church is one of them. Today this reception occurs for example in the life of the Tanzanian society. It involves four facts: the traditional religious experience of Tanzanians, the africanization of the Church's life, the coexistence of the Church with the State and the advantages granted by the existence of the post-Christian communities. These facts seen together suggest that the Tanzanian Christians are really working for the full, proper reception of the Catholic faith by the new culture which comes into being in this African country now. The traditional African religious values are the natural foundations for the development of the grace of the living faith among the people of Tanzania. However, these values are not a reality either for a conquest or for a rejection by the evangelizing Church, because they are offered to God by those people, who enter into the salvific dialogue with Him. Therefore, the Tanzanians have to incarnate permanently Jesus Christ who is evangelized to them, into their own traditional religious experience. The Catholic faith of them comes into existence only on this way. The africanization of the Church's life in Tanzania is the most explicit sign of the development of this Catholic faith of the Tanzanian Christians. The evangelization realized on the level of the parish life works first of all for this africanization in the local Church ofthat African country. The liturgy, the catechesis and the mutual relations between the people become more indigenous in a result of this process. At the same time, the new, more Christian culture grows in the real life of the Tanzanian society. What is more, this effort of the evangelizing Church meets congenial efforts of the Government of that society. Therefore, the mutual relations between the Church and the State are the first sign of the true africanization of the church's life in Tanzania. The Tanzanian form of government is based on the local tradition of the common life in this part of Africa and therefore, the care for the full development of the local man is the first aim for the activity of the civil authorities of this country. However, the activity of the evangelizing Church aims also to the full development of man. This identity of tasks gives grounds for the wide mutual co-operation of the Church and the State in Tanzania. Such a co-working is very important for the proper inculturation, because it does not involve only the leaders but also the wide masses of the People of God in the africanization of the Church's life. Such an involvement determines the reality of the true inculturation. The religious syncretism is the worst danger for the evangelization. It is a matter of fact, that some syncretical post-Christian religious movements exist as well in Tanzania as in the whole of Africa. They are not of course, the true Catholic or African attempts of forming a very African Christianity, because they result from the sociological aculturation. However, the existence of those movements helps the inculturation as they can absorbe the local syncretical indications of some Tanzanians. These movements help also the evangelizing Church to know and to avoid some mistakes in her evangelization. An observation about the very important role of the Christianity in the process of forming the new African reality concludes this reflection as well in its more theological as in its more missiographical part. This importance flows from the one fact. The Christians do not offer some ideology but the living person during the evangelization performed by them. It is the person of Jesus Christ living in the Church now. A good realization of such an offer by all modern evangelizers depends on the usage of the method of inculturation by them today.

autor: Biela, B.

tytuł: Pastoralne aspekty Odnowy w Duchu Świętym

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 31 (1998) 171-186

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słowa kluczowe: teologia pastoralnaOdnowa w Duchu Świętym

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Thirty years have passed when once again in the Catholic Church we are enjoying the revival of the charismatic movement called the "Renewal in the Holy Spirit". This movement, although it arises controversy and insinuations, still lasts, continues to develop and is sweeping with its range over millions of Christians all over the world. In 1975 Paul VI said that it was the chance for the Church of today and for the world. The article presenting the essence of the Renewal its fruit and the dangers involved points to certain conditions that must be fulfilled in order to take advantage of this chance.
In the face of diminishing religious practice, and at the same time of the trend to satisfy the hunger for religious experience through completely false ways, the Renewal in the Holy Spirit appears to be a sign of hope, because what forms its essence is not a system or method, but above all the experience of God's reality, His Goodness and power. This is the source of the widely understood religious and moral changes that transform the life of its members. Of course, certain negative aspects also occur, however, they can be avoided by suitable management and subordination to priestly authority.
The basic pillar of the Renewal is formed by the communities. They are the ones that help in acquiring special dispositions that condition God's action in man. There arises, in this connection a demand for their proper management and for a suitable formation of secular animators. Also a very important thing for the future of the Renewal is the attitude of priests themselves, who on account of their vocation have a unique and irreplacable role to be played, first of all in its integration with the life of the Church. There would be something abnormal about it, if the Renewal by strengthening the life of the Church remained without their commital, as this after all, could be the cause of its dwindling and also lead to various distortions.
It has become visible that traditional forms of ministry, basing on the post-Tridentine model of the parish are less and less effective. To start with, the Renewal in the Holy Spirit by "increasing the value" of the sacrament of Holy Baptism and Confirmation, can contribute considerably to the revival of the parish, as it is impossible to simply "introduce" enlivening of the parish. A personal meeting with Jesus Christ in the power of His Spirit must always be the point of departure. On this foundation developing communities can through their missionary ways, reach people who do not have any contact with the Church anymore.
There also appears the need to integrate in common action the Renewal in the Holy Spirit with our own native Movement of Light-Life which has already developed an overall and realistic program of parish animation.

autor: Biela, B.

tytuł: Struktura eklezjalnej wspólnoty we współczesnym nauczaniu Kościoła

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 44,2 (2011) 529-546

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słowa kluczowe: eklezjologiateologia pastoralnaMagisteriumKościółwspólnota

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Community of a person with God in Christ is the basis of creation in the Church and through the Church a new interpersonal community. This is related closely to the fact of a reinvention and reminding by Vaticanum II and a post-council Magisterium Ecclesiae that the Church making a pilgrimage on the earth develops as a brotherly community of all the faithful and at the same time as a community of local Churches. Such a vision of the Church is most of all a consequence of viewing the Church as a complex reality. This una realitas complexa is in the documents of the Second Vatican Council described as unity or a catholic fullness and even “holy mystery of unity”. This unity does not have its counterpart in lay communities. Its outstanding character comes from the fact that it refers to a divine-humane reality and its result is unity in multiplicity. On this awareness of a teandric character of an ecclesiastical reality Vaticanum II builds up its lecture on the internal structure of the Church as a diverse unity. This is a unity in a diversity of the faithful and a unity in a multiplicity of local Churches which centre is Christ - the Head represented by the community of pastors with the bishop of Rome. Not only this multiplicity and diversion does not disturb unity, but give it a character of communion. Hence the major thesis of of the post-council ecclesiology is based on the statement that the Church is a gathering that is shaped in a diversity of the faithful (communio fidelium), unity in the multiplicity of local Churches (communio ecclesiarum) and a gathering gathered round Christ represented in the power of the Spirit by a community of the pastors (communio hierarchica).These three realities in the post-council ecclesiology are perceived as the basic dimensions of the internal structure of the Church: charismatic, universal-and-local as well as hierarchical.

autor: Bista, S.

tytuł: Zarys rozwoju instytucji naukowo-wychowawczych kleru diecezjalnego

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 2 (1969) 83-100

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słowa kluczowe: historia Kościołaseminarium duchowneformacja seminaryjna

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Decretum Concilii Tridentini de seminariis post quatuor elapsis saeculis apparet potius tamquam lapis angularis atque principium efficax renovationis institutionis sacerdotalis. Re enim vera in ipso non exstat perfectum et ad finem deductum opus emendatoriumf sed tantum eins praemissae, quae attamen quam maxime aptae er ant ad hoc opus perficiendum. Quarum autem una maximi momenti erat, scilicet ius modificationis, quod relate ad sua praescripta decretum, Tridentinum episcopis concessit. Concessio huius iuris possibilitatem secumtulit multiformae evolutionis noviter creati instituti formationis sacerdotalis. Qua de re in parte tertia praesentis elucubrationis delineantur praecipuae species evolutionis seminarii dioecesani, quarum duae altioris mentionis dignae sunt. Prima species praefatae evolutionis consistit in evolutione ipsius instituti, i. e. Eiusdem formae structuralis - sicdictae formae conciliaris - in dua sui iuris, etsi invicem se supplentia, instituta, scilicet minus et maius seminarium; altera autem in evolutione obligationis commorandi in seminario dioecesano clericis ad sacerdotium aspirantibus impositae. Hac bipartita evolutione, iure particulari promota, elaborata est nova seminarii dioecesani conceptio, quae postmodum in Codice Iuris Canonici recepta est. Notio huius conceptionis duabus rrotis fundamentalibus designata:, primo, divisione seminarii dioecesani in dua separata atque independentia instituta, i. e. minus et maius seminarium, secundo, obligatione habitandi in seminario omnibus alumnis studio sacrae theologiae vacantibus irrogata; ipsa autem conceptio exemplum praebet prespicuum influxus iuris particularis relate ad configurationem normarum iuris universalis. In ultima denique parte elucubrationis agitur de perspectivis futurae evolutionis instituti seminarii dioecesani sub specie decreti Concilii Vaticani II de institutione sacerdotali perscrutatis. Decretum enim "Optatara totius" talem evolutionem non solum possibilem reddit, sed etiam realem eius existentiam ostendit, quia duas gravissimi momenti in foro formationis clericalis res sublineat: primo, decretum maiora tantum seminaria sicut sensu stricto instituta formationis sacerdotalis agnoscit, minora autem solum sicut unum variorum mediorum ad vocationes sacerdotales fovendas ordinatorum considérât; secundo, singulis Episcoporum Conferentiis ius modificationis suorum praescriptorum attribuit. Quod autem ius in usum deductum valde utile esse potest ad fructuosam accomodationem instituti seminarii dioecesani exigentiis temporis moderni expostulatam et ad profundam ameliorationem totius institutionis sacerdotalis. Relate ad ultimam quaestionem propositio quaedam in fine praesentis elucubrationis discussionis causa exponitur, quae praeter alia duo graviora postulata continet:
1. tirocinium pastorale diaconorum ad duos annos protractum, post finitum studiorum curriculum incipiendum;
2. susceptio ordinis presbyteratus tirocinio expleto una cum obligatione caelibatum servandi, qua obligatione tantummodo presbyteri astringantur subdiaconis diaconisque exceptis, vel possibilitas transitus ad statum diaconi permanemis aut reductionis ad statum laicalem.

autor: Celary, I.

tytuł: Alter und Krankheit in der postmodernen Gesellschaft in der Lehre des Papstes Franziskus

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 49,1 (2016) 97-112

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słowa kluczowe: Franciszekstarośćchoroba

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Old age and diseases in the postmodern society in the teaching of Pope Francis
The present article is based on the analysis of Pope Francis’ teaching on the situation of the elderly and ill people in the post – modern society. It presents the Pope’s concern for these people. The article consists of five sections. The first one contains the Pope’s reflections on the fear of diseases and old age. The second section shows his thoughts about increasing differences in treating healthy and sick people in the consumer societies. The third section presents the Pope’s warnings against promoting in everyday life only healthy and young people. The fourth and fifth section contain Pope Francis’ comment, in which he warns against excluding the elderly and sick people from everyday life and treating them as the second- or third- class people.

autor: Cuda, J.

tytuł: Prawda ludzkiego życia: ja = my = Bóg

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 12 (1979) 119-143

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słowa kluczowe: teologia fundamentalnaantropologia

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La présence, souvent douloureuse, de l'alternative humaine "etre ou ne pas etre", au monde d'aujourd'hui est évidente. Elle marque aussi bien la vie individuelle de l'homme (MOI) que la dimension sociale de son existence (NOUS). Sous cet aspect, l'expérience vécue (pratique) est confirmée par les analyses théoretiques (heuristique, herméneutique) du monde de l'homme. Parmi les "signes de temps", mettant en relief l'originalité de ce monde, il faut énumérer celui qui vise la "fragilité" de son existence historique. C'est alors d'un certain paradoxe qu'est accompagné l'anthropocentrisme du monde contemporain: d'une part revendiquant son autonomie et son autarcie, mais d'autre part toujours ouvert et échappant sans cesse a sa propre domination. Dans ce contexte l'alternative "etre ou ne pas etre", constituant un élément essentiel de la définition meme de l'existence historique de l'homme, devient le lieu .pecifique qui fait converger les questions les plus fondementales, a savoir celle du "sens de la vie" et celle de la "liberté". C'est a travers ces questions qu'on peut (on doit) envisager l'horizon englobant la "totalité" du monde de l'homme dont l'organisation vers l'Avenir ne peut pas se passer d'une vision globale fonctionnant comme une certaine hypothese unissant l'ensemble des éléments de cette organisation. Parmi les "hypotheses", prétendant expliquer le monde de l'homme, il y en a une, accompagnée d'un attribut "révélée". A la lumiere de cette hypothese la logique de l'existence mondaine de l'homme devient theologique. Le processus de la vérification de cette hypothese, bien qu'il soit interminable a l'intérieur de l'histoire, il dispose d'un nombre suffisant (progressant) de raisons intramondaines pour justifier la décision de lui faire confiance. CREATION - voila le mot-clé qui englobe tous les détails du contenu compliqué de cette hypothese. La création c'est un processus dialogique: c'est de l'originalité entitative de l'homme ("image de Dieu", "liberté") que résulte le mystere de sa coopération dans le processus de son propre. "devenir". Ce processus se réalise par étapes: appelé par son Créateur gratuitement a l'existence historique (I étape) l'homme doit accepter cette existence comme promesse de la vie éternelle et comme "lieu" de sa propre initiative créatrice (II étape); ainsi répondant positivement (négativement) a son Créateur il attend le "jour" d'une "nouvelle création" (tenant compte de la réponse de l'homme) qui, terminant le processus dialogique de la création, commencera la plenitude de son existence promise (III étape). Il en résulte que le sens de l'existence historique de l'homme est étroitement lié au mystere de l'alternative créatrice "etre ou ne pas etre". Si l'homme veut accepter son etre promis, il doit faire la vérité de cet etre. Cette vérité n'est réalisable qu'a travers une équation (simultanéité) mystérieuse: MOI = NOUS = DIEU. C'est alors dans le phénomene des' libres relations (amour, don) qu'est cachée la vérité d' «ETRE HOMME». Il faut donc "perdre" sa vie pour la "gagner": ce risque d'amour conditionne l'Alliance créatrice divino-humaine. Comme le "Fils" constitue le "lieu" unissant l'homme et Dieu dans le mystere de la meme "vie divine", c'est au "Fils" qu'il a appartenu aussi de faire restaurer cette Alliance créatrice apres son interruption causée par l'homme. Depuis l'intervention historique du "Fils" la continuation de la création dialogique de l'homme est en meme temps "salvatrice"; Dieu-Créateur est devenu aussi "Dieu-Sauveur" et l'achevement du processus créateur de l'homme (III étape) s'appele a la fois "Salut". Ce processus "post Christum" est alors accompagné par une dialectique spécifique d'un "déja" et d'un "pas encore" de son propre achevement. Le rassemblement créateur des hommes (MOI = NOUS) autour du "Fils" (Christ) s'appele Eglise . D'ou le probleme de l'appartenance a l'Eglise est de meme celui de l'alternative "etre ou ne pas etre". Il en résulte que l'Eglise constitue cette part de l'humanité qui accepte son etre promis. Cette, acceptation s'identifie a une marche transformatrice du monde de l'homme vers son Avenir. La vérité de cet Avenir (justice, liberté, paix, etc) faite a l'intérieur de l'histoire conditionne la qualité de vie commune de l'Homme-en-devenir. Aioutons, qu'on ne peut pas réduire cet HOMME-EN-DEVENIR, dans la spécificité de sa subjectivité (création = devenir Sujet), ni a la réalité d'un MOI, ni a celle d'un NOUS. Ce Sujet spécifique ne peut pas se passer de l'élément de RELATION unissant inséparablement des réalités MOI et NOUS humaines. C'est aussi a travers cette unité que se joue l'alternative "etre ou ne pas etre" de l'homme.

autor: Drożdż, A.

tytuł: Współczesne negacje etyki chrześcijańskiej

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 40,1 (2007) 65-80

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słowa kluczowe: etykamoralnośćpostmodernizm

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L'autore riassume i problemi piu scottanti della cultura post-modernista. Innanzitutto tocca l'eredita ateistica del secolo scorso (sopratutto quella di Hobbes, Heidegger, Sartre e pensatore americano - Z. Bauman). Il fondamentale piano della negazione del cristiano si fonda intorno al problema della liberta umana. Il discorso sulla liberta ha uno spessore enorme, vastissimo, che tocca tutti gli ambiti dell'agire umano: dalla filosofia alla teologia, dalla psicologia alla politica, dalla morale alla religione.
La coscienza morale e la proprieta piu saliente e piu qualificante dell'essere umano: quella che distacca maggiormente l'uomo dagli animali, conferendogli il potere di essere l'artefice di se stesso. E una cosa interessante che nella cultura post-informatica si sviluppa il concetto della coscienza morale come "coscienza senza senso di colpa". Essa si presenta anche come l'esperienza senza responsabilita umana. Con tale esperienza nasce la pressione culturale verso la negazione dei valori cristiani. Nelle discussioni sulla liberta umana alcuni pensatori negano che l'uomo sia libero (cosi Spinoza, Schopenchauer, ecc.), altri affermano la totale liberta umana, senza limiti (cosi Hobbes, Nietzsche, Bauman, ecc). L'etica costruita sul questo piano antropologico si manifesta come "l'etica liberata dalle norme universali o l'etica permissiva".
L'autore presenta nel suo articolo la tesi sulle controversie culturali. Il modello della cultura secolarizzata e l'uomo "libero e bello". Nella cultura cristiana il modello e Gesu Cristo (Veritatis splendor). Egli non e soltanto il nostro Salvatore che con la sua passione, morte e risurrezione ci libera dal peccato e ci dona la grazia di Dio, perché possiamo partecipare alla vita divina, ma egli e anche il nostro modello etico. Tutti i misteri do Cristo costituiscono esempi per chi vuole seguire la sua condotta. Questo ultimo criterio si presenta come criterio personalistico per ogni uomo moralmente integrato.

autor: Drożdż, A.

tytuł: Elementy ateistycznego marksizmu etycznego w dzisiejszej kulturze

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 46,2 (2013) 352-370

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słowa kluczowe: ateizmkulturasumienieteologia moralna

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Elements of Atheistic Ethical Marxism in Today’s Culture
The starting point of the article is the thesis that Marxist ideology created in the 19th century was realized in the communism of the 20th century. Then we have identified the areas of its further influence: (1) an ideological way of thinking rooted in the dialectics of contemporary media which direct consequence is the Postmodernism characterized by the fatalism of dialectical thinking and the existential scepticism; (2) the constant development of post-Marxist anthropology which treats a human being as a “one-dimensional man”, who can only rely on himself; this way of thinking is connected with the Marxist idea of “earthly salvation”, ultimately leading to the loss of hope; (3) in the culture the emergence of a specific “mechanism of salvage” from difficulties which is very important for many poor people living in the times of “quick transformations.” The article ends with an analysis of the causes and effects of the deformation of human conscience, which arises in the discussed context.

autor: Górski, J.

tytuł: Znaczenie kontekstu w misji Ad gentes

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 29 (1996) 79-95

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słowa kluczowe: misjologiamisjeinkulturacja

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This article belongs to new mission theology. It is an attainments in Polish bibliography and makes possible to know method and problems of missions in contextualization theology. The inculturation is as well an art as a method of mission in the all world. As a method it contains different mission fields. At first of all it contains liturgy, sacral music, art and canon law. But the inculturation contains all theology also. Above problems are dealt in this work. The result of the study is problem of contextualization. In the light of contextualization theology it is necessary to put question about the meaning of mission. The aim of this work is to answer the question, which is theology of mission in post - council theology. Sources of studies are documentation of the regional bishops' conferences: of Asia (FABC), of Africa (SECAM) and Latin America (CELAM) and new missiological literature from non-european countries. On the base of contextualization dimension of mission theology we can build three models - in Asiatic context - means the problem of non-christian religions. The second models is the meeting with different cultures. This is African context. The third - Latin American model - means the help in development and as result of theology of liberation. Above three missiological models, three examples of contextual ization are very important in the preparation of mission work. The theoretical work, peculiarity farther development of missiology, is built on the base of missiology and ecclesiology. Now the next question appears: which is role of particular churches. In the mission activity a center point lies on particular - continental churches. Rome as a center of mission has the task to co-ordinate this work. For missiology as a part of theology, new dimension appears: to take into consideration the contextualization problem. In the crisis of missiology this study is a proposition which contains idea of II Vatican Council and it may be a new point of start to farther theoretical studies and impulse for mission practice.

autor: Ignatowski, G.

tytuł: Katechizm rzymski Soboru Trydenckiego a współczesne dokumenty Kościoła katolickiego na temat Żydów i judaizmu

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 38,1 (2005) 81-89

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słowa kluczowe: dialog międzyreligijnyjudaizmKatechizm Rzymski

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The Roman Catechism of the Council of Trent and the Modern Documents of the Catholic Church on the Jews and Judaism
After the last Vatican Council some authors and documents on the Catholic-Jewish relations emphasize that The Roman Catechism of the Council of Trent issued in 1556 teaches that not all the Jews, Jesus' contemporaries, are responsible for the Crucifixion. In the first part of the presented article the author explains why the Secretariat for Promoting Christian Unity, which had prepared the Declaration on the Relationship of the Church to Non-Christian Religions Nostra Aetate (accepted by the Council in October 28, 1965, clause nr 4 of which deals with the Jews), did not quote The Roman Catechism, which teaches that no single person but all men are guilty of Jesus' death: "This guilt seems heavier on our part than on the Jews', since according to the testimony of the apostle »had they known it, they would never have crucified the Lord of glory« (1 Cor. 2, 8); while we, on the contrary, professing to know him, yet denying him by our actions, seem in some sort to lay violent hands in him". The passage was cited by some Fathers of the Second Council and by the some post-Conciliar documents. The author of the article is convinced that in the matter of the death of Jesus Christ it is necessary to distinguish between the theological guilt and the historical responsibility. From the point of view Christian theology all human beings are guilty of Jesus' death. The Christ voluntarily underwent the Passion because of the sins of all men. The last Council wanted to emphasize that the Jewish people, as a whole, was not responsible for the Crucifixion, from the historical point of view. The main motive of the decision of the Council was the fact that Jesus' cruel death and especially the accusation of the Jewish people of the Crucifixion have been the cause of the lamentable deterioration of the relations between the Church and Judaism. As the passage quoted from The Roman Catechism dealt with the theological aspect of the guilt of the Crucifixion, it could not be a useful document for the last Council. Moreover, the sixteenth century catechism, from the historical perspective, stresses clearly that the pagans and the Jews were responsible for the Passion. The last part of the article discusses the post-Conciliar documents, which quote The Roman Catechism. The discussion shows that those documents, recalling the 16th century catechism, emphasize the theological mining of Christ's death.

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