Wydział Teologiczny Uniwersytetu Śląskiego

Oferta WTL UŚ

Nadchodzące wydarzenia

Nie ma nadchodzących wydarzeń

konsultacje - wyjątki

zgłoszone przez pracowników wyjątki w zwykłych terminach konsultacji: brak zgłoszeń

zajęcia dydaktyczne - zmiany/wyjątki

zgłoszone przez pracowników zmiany/wyjątki w zwykłych terminach zajęć dydaktycznych: brak zgłoszeń


1173 opisów(-y)

szukane wyrażenie (1)

zakres wyszukiwania (1)

szukane wyrażenie (2)

zakres wyszukiwania (2)


ilość opisów na stronie


wyświetl listy
[kliknięcie na pozycję z danej listy spowoduje wyszukanie odpowiadających jej opisów]:

⇒ autorów

⇒ słów kluczowych

szukane wyrażenie: "caritas" | znaleziono 13 opisów(-y) | strona: 1 spośród: 2

[<<] | 1 | 2 | [>>]

autor: Bańka, A.R.

tytuł: Misja katolików w świecie współczesnym według encykliki Benedykta XVI Caritas in veritate. Studium analityczne

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 48,2 (2015) 330-342

pełny tekst artykułu      spis treści rocznika

słowa kluczowe: Caritas in veritateBenedykt XVI

pokaż / ukryj streszczenie (show/hide abstract)

The Mission of Catholics in the Modern World According to Benedict XVI’s Encyclical Caritas in Veritate. An Analytical Study
Benedict XVI’s encyclical Caritas in Veritate is by many commentators of his pontificate marginalized and considered a weak point of the teaching of the Pope. It is accused of more pastoral than social nature, naivety, and even some daydreaming. Unfairly. Paradoxically, what is disclosed as its weakness, after careful reading may prove to be its strength. This article aims to show that Caritas in Veritate can be read according to three key concepts: understanding, loving, action. These terms define some interdependent layers of the encyclical, and their skillful interpretation allows to extract from the text of the Pope an interesting vision of the mission of Catholics in the today’s world.

autor: Hadrych, Z.

tytuł: Organizacja akcji charytatywnej w diecezji katowickiej w czasie wielkiego kryzysu gospodarczego (1929-1935)

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 45,2 (2012) 331-342

pełny tekst artykułu      spis treści rocznika

słowa kluczowe: historia Kościoła na Śląskudziałalność charytatywna

pokaż / ukryj streszczenie (show/hide abstract)

Charity in the Diocese of Katowice during the Great Depression (1929-1935)
The Great Depression in Poland (1929-1935) severely affected the most industrialized region of the Second Polish Republic, the Upper Silesia. A huge decrease in industrial production left 30% of the labour force unemployed and had many adverse social implications. The Catholic Church of the Diocese of Katowice took a number of actions aimed at minimizing these negative social consequences and caring for the poor and needy. To that end, the priests of the local diocese established and reorganized charitable organizations. The most important one that coordinated the charity events was the Association of Charitable Societies “Caritas”. Other organizations that provided aid and assistance on a large scale were the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul. All orders and congregations active in the diocese also played a major role in this movement. The ordinaries of the Diocese of Katowice (Bishop Arkadiusz Lisiecki and Bishop Stanisław Adamski) educated the activists working for charitable organizations by enrolling them in courses or organizing special trainings in Katowice.

autor: Jakimowicz, M.

tytuł: Prawo natury jako źródło prawa kanonicznego w Kodeksie Jana Pawła II

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 29 (1996) 97-124

pełny tekst artykułu      spis treści rocznika

słowa kluczowe: prawo kanoniczneprawo naturalne

pokaż / ukryj streszczenie (show/hide abstract)

The Christian concept of natural law is built on the foundations laid down by such protagonists as Paul of Tarsus, Saint Augustine or Saint Thomas. The first one believed that law of nature had been inscribed in human nature by the Creator. However, it was St. Augustine who explained the Christian concept of natural law. In his reflections he began with the act by which God had created man. According to St Augustine a man, created as a reflection and a living picture of God, became law for himself, doing the right things. Despite the fact that human nature has been contaminated by the original sin, a man feels natural law as a longing for the original condition. Saint Thomas based his meditations on the need for noticing the division between natural order and supernatural reality. It allowed him to define law of nature as a human participation in the immemorial law of God, and as a component of sensible (rational) human nature. Saint Thomas indicates direct relation between positive law and natural law. Positive law is a derivative of natural law and it has to be congruent with it. Christianity has been accompanied by the awareness of ceaselessly existing nature until the present century. Despite a strong influence of positive legal philosophy on Law of the Church, church legislator referred to natural law in the Canon Law Code from 1917. As early as in canon 6 point 6 it was declared that the present Code does not cancel natural law. Also no tradition can do it (canon 27 p. 1). However, in the old Code we can find few specific references between canon law standards and natural law. After the second Vatican Ecumenical Council church sciences, especially the science of canon law, became more interested in natural law. Then profound reforms within the Church were undertaken. The most important one referred to the understanding of the Church itself because its hitherto existing image was denied. The Church was no longer perceived as a state entity, a perfect community. The Mystery of the Church was noticed. During the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council the Church was defined as a Salvation Sacrament. The notion of a sacrament carries a crucial feature which characterizes the Church as a specificity of Its sign. The Church is a real sign, i.e. it not only points out at some kind of reality but it also embraces it. Here we mean the presence of God in life of the Church. Such perception of the Church led not only to the reform of church law but it also brought change in understanding of its function within the Church. The law in Church is derived from religious experience. A baptized man is on the one hand presented with life based on the love of God and other people. On the other hand the believer is required to live in truth and to testify the truth. This requirement is a duty and it has been perceived by Christians as such from the very beginning. Being given the grace of living in the love community and the call to testify the truth, is fundamental for the fulfillment of law within the Church. The positive law of God is a fundamental source of the church law. Pope John Paul II has already reminded us of it in his latest encyclical Veritatis splendor. He points out there that the law of God is a basic law for the Church, it is essential for its constitution. It contains elements which the church cannot abandon, something it cannot relinquish, forget, or change. The law of God, however invariable it is, can be recognized, depending on the civilized development of man, his scientific background and cognitive abilities. Under the present Code, church legislator often quotes the law of God, making use of the following expressions: ius divinum, lex divina, institutio divina, ordinatio divina, or relevant verb forms. The Pope maintains traditional distinction between positive and natural law within the God's law. Both are reflections of the immemorial law. Natural law was given to man in the act of creation. Practical mind takes active part in the process of discovering the rules of natural law. It derives its authority from God's Wisdom. The light of natural mind which allows to distinguish between good and evil is a reflection of the light of God. The natural law got its name because mind, which announces it, is a part of human nature. However, natural law is a secondary source for the canon law. In the presently binding Code the legislator refers to natural law more frequently than in the previous one. First of all he quotes such rules of natural law that can be regarded as axiological foundation of the canon law. Here he means freedom, equality and canon equity. The essence of aequitas naturalis is a complement of ideas such as: caritas or aequitas canonica. Natural equity allows to refer to particular human values such as: honesty, kindness, natural justice or simplicity. The legislator quotes the natural equity in canon 271 p. 3. The provisions of agreement made between bishop of a place where priest was ordained and bishop of where the priest works, have to be kept. Even if the conditions forced the bishop a quo to recall his priest to work in the diocese, natural equity does not allow to break the provisions of the agreement. Canon 1148 p. 3 describes the effects of a polygamous marriage, which was dissolved because of the husband's baptism. The man should remain with one wife, however it does not release him from his obligations resulting from his previous relationships. In the present Code, the rules of freedom were applied to the idea of religious freedom and freedom of conscience. In canon 784 it has been declared that nobody can be forced to adopt Catholic Faith. Therefore, people who have never been baptized or those of a different creed cannot be forced to accept Catholicism, but even the Catholics who have decided to split up with the church community cannot be pushed in any way. Such understanding of religious freedom has its roots in the Vatican Ecumenical Council II. The ecumenical fathers explain the right to religious freedom as something that has deep roots in human nature. Human dignity requires a man to follow his conscious choice. Canon 218 recognizes the freedom of search conducted by the theologians, canonian scholars and dogmatists. They are, however, burdened with a duty to be obedient to the Tutorial Church Office. Ideas related to the freedom of conscience can be found in canon 748. They originate from the teachings of the Ecumenical Council and from the Pope. It is important that the Church does not violate the freedom of conscience when it comes to questions of faith and morality. Canon 630 p. 1 burdens the Superiors of Monastic Institutes with the duty to maintain freedom to receive sacraments and spiritual guidance. Canon 799 obliges the church authority to provide upbringing consistent with their parents' conscience. The rule of equality has a special importance in relation to the Church. The Church, in its nature, is a hierarchized community. That is why, in canon 208, church legislator decides that all the believers are equal in terms of dignity and activity. However, there is a difference when it comes to the church mission - everybody performs a different function (laymen and priests). Different levels of hierarchy apply especially to the clergymen. But all the believers participate in the same priesthood of Christ. In the present Code we can find other applications of the equality rule. Equality between a man and a woman manifests itself in the fact that a woman can be appointed a judge auditor (canon 1428 p. 2) or associate judge (canon 1424), etc.. Only holy orders are reserved for men. In the present canon law the difference between legitimate and illegitimate children is eliminated (canon 1139).

autor: Kluz, M.

tytuł: Jezus ucieleśnieniem miłości doskonałej w świetle Deus caritas est Benedykta XVI

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 51,1 (2018) 131-145

pełny tekst artykułu      spis treści rocznika

słowa kluczowe: Benedykt XVIDeus caritas estJezus Chrystusmiłość

pokaż / ukryj streszczenie (show/hide abstract)

Jesus as Perfect Love Incarnate in the Light of Deus Caritas Est of Benedict XVI
The topic of Christian love with its fundamental meaning has been present in theological reflection of the Catholic Church for ages. It does not mean that this topic has been outdated. Quite the opposite, the message about God who is Love and the human answer to the love of God, still should be conveyed to people. The centre of God’s plan of love is in Christ. Love has been visible and tangible in Him. In this perspective the encyclical of Benedict XVI Deus Caritas Est is situated. Following this encyclical on the topic of love, as a starting point, we should accept the first source of love which is Jesus Christ. He, as an embodiment of perfect love, constitutes the criterion for recognizing the true Christian love.

autor: Kosiński, S.

tytuł: August Hlond na Śląsku. W 60. rocznicę erygowania diecezji katowickiej

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 18 (1985) 7-25

pełny tekst artykułu      spis treści rocznika

słowa kluczowe:

pokaż / ukryj streszczenie (show/hide abstract)

II presente articolo e' una versione ampliata di una conferenza tenuta il 23 maggio 1985 nella chiesa di Maria Ssma a Katowice all'occasione del 60° anniversario della nomina di don Agosto Hlond alla dignita' del primo vescovo della diocesi Katowice. Codesta diocesi fu eretta dal papa Pio XI con bolla Vixdwn Poloniae unitas del 28 ottobre 1925. L'articolo presenta l'attivita' di don Hlond nella Slesia Polacca prima da l'amministratore apostolico, poi da vescovo di Katowice. La parte prima dell'art. tratta dell'origine della Delegazione Vescovile nella Slesia Alta e del suo primo pastore don Giovanni Kapica, nominato delegato del card. Adolf Bertram, il vescovo di Wrocław coi poteri del vicario generale per il territorio polacco. Siccome quella Delegazione non godeva dei un riconoscimento da parte della popolazione polacca, Pio XI ha creato per la Slesia Alta una amministrazione apostolica indipendente dalla Arcidiocesi di Wrocław. Quale suo primo amministratore Pio XI nomino' don A. Hlond, fin ad allora provinciale dei salesiani della Provincia austro-ungherese-tedesca con la sede a Vienna. Questa nomina a sorpresa fu di iniziativa personale del papa Pio XI, benché' don Hlond stesso suggeriva al papa la necessita' di creare quella unita'ecclesiastica quale indipendente da Wrocław. A questo scopo don Hlond si reco a Roma e il 7 novembre 1922 fu ricevuto dal papa in udienza privata e nominato amministratore apostolico. Alcuni giorni piu' tardi, il 11 novembre dello stesso anno il papa nomino' don Hlond protonotario apostolico ad instar participantium. L'ingresso alla chiesa di Maria Ssma a Katowice ebbe luogo il 17 dicembre dello stesso anno con larga partecipazione del fedeli. La parte seconda dell'articolo tratta del processo di organizzazione dell'amministrazione apostolica nella Slesia polacca. Quale primo atto ufficiale di Mons. Hlond era Edmund Dalbor. Gli inizi del lavoro del nuovo Amministratore Apostolico della Slesia erano assai difficili, sia per la mancanza dei mezzi materiali sufficienti sia per la mancanza dei collaboratori adeguati. Quella fu l'organizzazione di tutto cominciando dalla base. Per prima il mons. Hlond organizzo' la Curia Vescovile, quindi creoTorgano ufficiale della Curia "Rozporządzenia Administracji Apostolskiej" (Disposizioni dell'Amministrazione Apostolica), di cui iJ primo numero apparve il 6 maggio 1923. Gia'il 5 gennaio dello stesso anno il mons. Hlond nomino'il Concilio diocesano costituito da 11 membri — sacerdoti con don Giovanni Kapica a capo. Il 1 febbraio creo'la Corte della prima instanza. Quindi divise i decanati troppo grandi e ne creo'di piu'meno estesi. Eresse pure nuove parocchie. Comincio'la costruzione della nuova cattedrale a Katowice. Curo' i lavori della costruzione del nuovo edificio per la Curia vescovile e del Seminario diocesano a Cracovia. A. Hlond dedico'pure gli sforze per la costruzione della casa per gli esercizi spirituali. La parte terza del articolo e'dedicata alle attivita' diocesane dell'Amministratore Apostolico della Slesia Polacca. Quale questione della prima importanza il mons. Hlond intendeva il Seminario diocesano per i candidati al sacerdozio per la diocesi, di cui primo rettore nomino' don Wawrzyniec Pucher. Nel 1923 grazie all'iniziativa di don Teofil Bromboszcz e'stata creata "La Societa'Scientifica dei Sacerdoti della Silesia", e poi "Circolo Omiletico" e "L'opera delle vocazioni". Nello stesso 1923 A. Hlond fondo' il settimanale per le famiglie cattoliche "Gość Niedzielny" (L'ospite della domenica). L'anno dopo (1924) fondo' la Lega Cattolica (Liga Katolicka). Egli organizzava dei Convegni Cattolici e pellegrinaggi a Chiaro Monte di Częstochowa. Nel 1925 riusci' ultimare passi per la coronazione dell'Immagine miracolosa di Maria Ssma a Piekary Śląskie. La coronazione fu eseguita dal Nunzio Apostolico in Polonia mons. Lorenzo Lauri. Lo stesso anno egli stette a capo del pellegrinaggio diocesano a Roma organizzato da don Józef Gawlina. Il mons. Hlond sviluppo' anche le attivita' caritative e sociali. Il 27 luglio 1924 egli diede vita al Segretario della Beneficenza Diocesana "Caritas" e in seguito al Comitato di Soccorso Silesiano. Egli fondo' inoltre la Lega Antialcoolica per il ricupero delle vittime delle bevande alcooliché. Combatteva la miseria a la disoccupazione nella Slesia. Emise numerose lettere pastorali e appelli di circostanza. Don. A. Hlond prendeva attivamente parte alla vita della Chiesa della Polonia. Nel 1924 partecipo' al Convegno di unita'delle Chiese a Velehrad da parte dell'Episcopato polacco. Ebbe diversi incarichi nell'Episcopato. Tra l'altro era membro della Commissione Pontificia. Partecipo' ai Convegni cattolici. D'altro canto continuava a partecipare attivamente alla vita salesiana. Nel 1923 partecipo' alla Riunione degli Exalievi salesiani a Oświęcim nel 25° Anniversario della venuta dei Salesiani di Don Bosco in Polonia. Nel 1925 prese parte al Congresso Missionario Giovanile a Oświęcim e nel 1926 nel Congresso Missionario Salesiano a Łódź. A Katowice ospitava numerosi prelati della Chiesa tra cui il card. Giovanni Cagliero e il card. Louis Dubois. Come vertice dell'attivita'molteplice ed intensa di don Hlond fu la fondazione da Pio XI il 14 dicembre 1925 della diocesi di Katowice e la chiamata l'amministratore apostolico fin ad allora quale suo primo vescovo. La consacrazione al vescovo gli e'stata conferita dal card. Al. Kakowski il 3 gennaio 1926. Il 22 dello stesso mese il vescovo Hlond fondo' il Capitolo cattedrale. Circa 6 mesi dopo il papa Pio XI lo chiamo' alla sede arcivescovile di Gniezno e di Poznań. Quale primate e poi anche cardinale, Hlond si interessava vivamente della vita cattolica della Slesia Alta, visitando non di rado la diocesi gia' sua. La parte quarta tratta delle difficolta' che il mons. Hlond incontrava da parte della popolazione tedesca. Nonostande tutte le difficolta' il vescovo si dimostro' tenace e pieno di vivo ottimismo. Sia gli sacerdoti che i fedeli egli li seppe conquistare grazie alla sua innata bonta', benevolenza, delicatezza ed entusiasmo. Facendo bilancio dell'attivita' del mons. Hlond nella Slesia, l'articolo le riconosce indiscutibilmente positivo. I meriti di mons. Hlond nella formazione della vita religiosa ed ecclesiale e nell'organizzazione dell'amministrazione apostolica nella Slesia Alta sono pietra miliare nella storia della religione cattolica di quella parte della Polonia.

autor: Malcher, M.

tytuł: "Caritas" w archidiecezji katowickiej

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 27-28 (1994-95) 325-329

pełny tekst artykułu      spis treści rocznika

słowa kluczowe:

autor: Maroń, F.

tytuł: Dzieje i ustrój biskupstwa wrocławskiego w ostatnim ćwierćwieczu przed oddzieleniem obszaru obecnej diecezji katowickiej

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 11 (1978) 163-231

pełny tekst artykułu      spis treści rocznika

słowa kluczowe:

pokaż / ukryj streszczenie (show/hide abstract)

Post praefatam explicationem rerum tempore officii duorum ultimorum ex occidente Germaniae in Silesiam translatorum episcoporum Kopp et Bertram conditiones dioecesis Wratislaviensis praecipue in Silesia Superiore continenter exponuntur, nempe numerus incolarum, sacerdotum, decanatuum, commissariatuum, erectio et administratio paroeciarum, educatio, officia conventus status sacerdotalis, administratio bonorum ecclesiae et beneficii, res liturgicae, sacramenta, supplicationes, instructio catechetica, societates, caritas ante et durante bello.

autor: Mirek, A.

tytuł: Ustawa o przejęciu dóbr "martwej ręki" - zamach na życie zakonne w Polsce?

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 36,1 (2003) 168-179

pełny tekst artykułu      spis treści rocznika

słowa kluczowe: historia Kościoła w Polscehistoria zakonówXX wiek

pokaż / ukryj streszczenie (show/hide abstract)

Nach der Festigung ihrer Herrschaft im Jahre 1949, änderte die kommunistische Regierung mit dem Dekret vom 5. August manche Bestimmungen des Rechts der freien Vereinsbildung und stellten damit auch die rechtliche Grundlage für die Existenz von Orden und Ordensgemeinschaften in Polen infrage. Unter Androhung der Auflösung und des Verbots ihrer Tätigkeit bei Nichtachtung der staatlichen Forderungen, zwang man die Orden Gesuche auf die rechtliche Regelung ihrer Existenz einzureichen. Infolge dieses Gesetzes war auch die in Zivilkleidung tätige Gemeinschaft der Töchter der Jungfrau Maria (1891 von H. Koźmiński in Zakroczym für die Arbeit in Städten gegründet), die bei den Staatsbehörden unter der Bezeichnung Lehr- und Erziehungsgesellschaft "Caritas" auftrat, in ihrer rechtlichen Existenz bedroht. Nach dem Inkrafttreten des Gesetzes vom 6.3.1950 über die Beschlagnahme von Ordensgütern, besaßen die Behörden unbegrenzte Möglichkeiten der Ingerenz und eigenmächtigen (obwohl im Namen des geltenden Rechtes) Übernahme von Immobilien und Grundbesitz der Ordensgemeinschaft. Die Beschlagnahme dieses Grundbesitzes war nur ein Teil aller geplanten Maßnahmen zur Vernichtung der Orden und Ordensgemeinschaften in Polen.

autor: Mycek, S.

tytuł: Podstawowe zasady chrześcijaństwa według Josepha Ratzingera - Benedykta XVI

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 42,2 (2009) 113-128

pełny tekst artykułu      spis treści rocznika

słowa kluczowe: historia teologiiXX wiekXXI wiekBenedykt XVIRatzinger Josephteologia fundamentalna

pokaż / ukryj streszczenie (show/hide abstract)

Principi fondam entali del cristianesimo in Joseph Ra tzinger - Benedetto XVI. Sommario
L’articolo analizza la questione dell’essenza del cristianesimo nel pensiero di J. Ratzinger – Benedetto XVI, riferendosi, in un confronto dialogico, alle seguenti opere: la prima, scritta ancora dal prof. Ratzinger, “Introduzine al cristianesimo”, le altre due scritte gia dal Papa Benedetto: “Deus caritas est” e “Sacramentum caritatis”. “Introduzione” riprende esplicitamente l’argomento d’essenza, offrendo le proprie esplicazioni di tipo apologetico-pastorale; le altre due, invece, sviluppano in modo apologetico-dogmatico e pastorale cio, che e l’essenziale nel cristianesimo, ossia l’amore personalizzante. Dopo una breve riflessione sul metodo della ricerca di Ratzinger – Benedetto XVI, viene riassunta l’essenza cattolica, la quale si coglie in alcune strutture ovvero principi: “l’individuo singolo e il tutto”, “il principio del per”, “la legge della sovrabbondanza”, “stadio definitivo e speranza”, “preminenza della ricezione e positivita cristiana”. L’amore, essendo l’essenza del cristianesimo, ha bisogno della fede e della speranza, che devono essere imparate e vissute nella comunita della Chiesa. Siccome tale amore non e una cosa astratta, il suo ideale si e concretizzato nella persona e nella missione di Gesu Cristo, il quale, in modo vocazionale e ragionevole, rimane aperto alla liberta umana in ogni Eucaristia. Proprio un tale amore si rivela come il principio fondamentale del cristianesimo.

autor: Myszor, J.

tytuł: Akcja charytatywna w diecezji katowickiej w latach 1925-1939. Cele i zasady działania

Śląskie Studia Historyczno-Teologiczne 35,2 (2002) 406-416

pełny tekst artykułu      spis treści rocznika

słowa kluczowe: historia Kościoła na Śląskudziałalność charytatywna

pokaż / ukryj streszczenie (show/hide abstract)

In der Zwischenkriegszeit basierte die karitative Aktion der Diözese Kattowitz in seiner Tätigkeit auf den Erfahrungen aus Posen und - indirekt - auch auf den der deutschen, die in Freiburg von den Prälat Lorenz Werthmann gemacht wurden. Der Zentrale des Caritasverbandes zu Kattowitz unterstanden die Filialen, die sich in fast allen Pfarrgemeinden befanden, die auch mal besser, mal schlechter wirkten und mit unterschiedlichem Erfolg die Folgen der Arbeitslosigkeit zu bewältigen probierten. Die katholischen Aktivisten hatten keine Ambitione, Lösungen der Armutsfragen in der Veränderung des Systems, eines sogenannten dritten Weges - einer Formation zwischen Kapitalismus und Sozialismus, zu suchen. Im Gegensatz zu der öffentlichen Armenpflege bemühte sich die Caritas, meistens auch erfolgreicher, individuell auf die Bedürftigen einzugehen um dann besser gezielt helfen zu können. Es wurden Kontakte mit der öffentlichen Armenpflege geschlossen. Gleichzeitig aber bemühte man sich auch darum, die eigene Unabhängigkeit zu bewahren und damit den Tätigkeitsbereich nicht nur auf die sittlichen Seiten der durch das materielle Elend hervorgerufenen Probleme einzuschränken. Die in der karitativen Arbeit gewonnene praktische Erfahrung verhinderte das Eintreten von Missbrauch und ließ den Vorwurf einer Tätigkeitsnaivität, besonders wenn es um die Verteilung der materiellen Güter ging, nicht zu. Der Caritasverband war, wenn man die unvermeidlich stark ausgebauten Organisationsstrukturen und das Ausmaß der Bürokratisierung betrachtet, eine direkte Konkurrenz gegenüber der öffentlichen Armenpflege, die von der staatlichen Administration geleistet wurde.

strona: 1 spośród: 2
[<<] | 1 | 2 | [>>]
znaleziono: 13 opisów(-y)